Essay No. 205:
Unemployment Of The Educated: Unemployment shows a state where the number of job-seekers is far greater than the number of available jobs. In other words, the supply of job-seekers far exceeds the available job opportunities. The prospects of employment for the educated in Pakistan are not much bright for a number of reasons.
The number of ordinary graduates / postgraduates in different arts/science subjects in very large as compared to a limited number of jobs available in the country. Top of all, there is a severe type of competition in the open market. Those who are competent and have a good grip over their disciplines, stand a good chance of selection.
The market is already saturated and further addition of graduates / postgraduates to the supply lines adds fuel to the fire. The universities, colleges go on producing fresh graduates/postgraduates in different disciplines leading to the aggravation of the situation. Unemployment tends to be intensified.
Young men / girls holding B.A / B.Sc., MA / M.Sc. degress in their hands are greatly frustrated when they fail to get jobs commensurate with their qualifications. Most of the youngmen / girls work in private tuition centres / academies at very low wages. It leads to their economic exploitation. They do not enjoy any job security in privately managed institutions.
The latter are guided by profit motive and as such offer employment to the young men at a very low level of wages. Public sector used to be the provider of jobs to the young men / girls in the education, health sectors. Now the jobs are offered on contract basis for a limited period in the aforesaid sectors. The procedure of selection is more or less the same.
The candidates have to pass through the defined procedure of selection at the level of Public Service Commission in the respective provinces. The selected candidates do not enjoy the benefit of pension as their services can be terminated any time. This approach has been occasioned as a result of the pressure brought upon the Pakistan government by agencies like IMF / World Bank, to avoid growing fiscal deficit.
The government with no liability of paying pension could save a lot of money to lessen the fiscal deficit. However, there are other ways of reducing the recurring expenditure. The rulers could exercise austerity at their level to cut down the expenditure, but profligacy is the creed acceptable to them.
They are not inclined to reduce the number of people in delegations accompanying the Prime Minister to foreign countries. They stay in most expensive hotels abroad, thereby causing a drain on the lean thin foreign exchange resources of the country. Austerity is alien to our rulers. They do not like to reduce the recurring expenditure, but they can axe the interests of the recruited young men in different departments by withdrawing away the privilege of pension and job security.
The magnitude of unemployment can be gauged form the number of application received for different posts in the Public Service Commission at the Federal and provincial levels in comparison to a limited number of available jobs. Unemployment is a problem which is assuming alarming proportions in the country. Frustrated employed young men pose a great threat to the stability of the country.
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Food inflation being severe, coupled with the shrinking possibility of employment for the young educated, has created a volatile type of situation in the country. The employed young men tend to be drawn towards socially undesirable activities like smuggling, sale of heroin through underhand means etc. it is a great loss of the national talent.
There needs to be a change in the system of education. There should be a bias towards technical education. Instead of opening arts colleges, the government should establish poly techniques to impart training in different industrial arts. Young boys need education as would help them earn their living in life. The electricians, plumbers do well in their fields as they make a living all right.
Ordinary graduates / postgraduates do not stand a chance of absorption in the national economy. After doing graduation they should better join some colleges of education to get training in teaching. Thereafter they could join schools in the public as well as in the private sectors, after passing through severe test of competition.
The need of man power planning is acutely felt in Pakistan. Foolproof man power planning even is not possible in developed countries which have the most developed techniques of projecting man power requirements in the coming times. However, system of education should be co-related to manpower requirements in different fields like engineering, medicine, dentistry.
If more engineers / doctors are needed, more facilities in the aforesaid fields be provided to have increasing inputs to cope with the requirements. The private sector needs more engineers in different fields with an overall growth of industry. It needs qualified chartered accountants. The emphasis should obviously be laid on such trade specializations.
Computer programming is one such field which offers great possibilities of job opportunity due to the diffusion of IT. The micro credit facility be provided to the young men to start some business, for which they have aptitude and posses some technical expertise. That will open up opportunities of unemployment to educated to make a living independently.